Most measurements of biogeochemical rates are most easily accomplished at small spatial scales (e.g. incubations of 1000 cubic cm or less). However, most ecosystem scientists are interested in whole ecosystem rates. Various processes can influence measurements of rates at small scales such that they diverge from in situ rates. Non-linear scaling could also be a consideration for extrapolating from small incubations or measurements to whole-system rates. This will be a session to discuss how these issues might vary across habitats, and what the best practices might include to make small scale measurements most relevant to reality. Habitats to consider include soil, sediment, and open water. Participants from freshwater, terrestrial, and marine backgrounds are encouraged to attend.